Science Questions and Jurassic Park

I saw the Jurassic Park movie over three weeks ago and I enjoyed it immensely. However, as I watched the movie, I could not help but wonder if there was anything in the movie that could be answered by science. I decided then and there to put a question as a Facebook status update to see if I can answer any science-related questions about the movie. To my surprise, I received some replies. Below are replies to some of the questions I have received.

1. How far can you really run from a dinosaur while wearing high heels without being eaten?
The movie’s deuteragonist, Claire Dearing, spends the majority of the film in high heels – even being chased by life-threatening raptors by them!
Sadly, science proves that you can’t run far in high heels.
Neil Cronin, a biology professor at University of Jyvaskyla in Finland, states that the impact of the foot in a high-heeled shoe “would be concentrated over a small region of the foot in high heels, creating regions of very high pressure.” In simple words – foot pain. Running in high heels is a “very inefficient way to move.”
Even though it’s common knowledge that wearing high heels is detrimental to feet, until now there haven’t been many studies to prove that statement. In a study performed by Hanseo University in South Korea, women who wear high heels for an extended period of time experienced decreased ankle strength and balance problems.
Would that make you reconsider running in heels altogether?

2. Were the Velociraptors really that big?

Velociraptors are a staple of the Jurassic Park universe, appearing in all four movies. In all of the Jurassic Park movies, they are double a man’s height:

The truth: velociraptors were the size of a small turkey. Here is a picture for reference:

In addition, fossil evidence from Mongolia showed that Velociraptors had feathers, not scaly skin as seen in the film. However, the arms of Velociraptors were too short, so they were unable to fly.
The Velociraptors in the Jurassic Park movies were based on Deinonychus, a much larger raptor.
3. So InGen decides to go and build Jurassic World on Isla Nublar, the original site of Jurassic Park. InGen also had Isla Sorna aka Site B, the main setting for The Lost World and Jurassic Park III.
Even though the island is restricted, does it seem possible that InGen made a second Jurassic World at Isla Sorna?
At the end of the movie, the chief geneticist Dr. Wu was helicoptered off the island with the dinosaur embryos. At the end of Jurassic Park III, pterosaurs are seen leaving Isla Sorna seeking new nesting grounds. Even though the island and its facilities are abandoned, InGen still owns the island, since there is no mention in the Jurassic Park canon that the company has sold their island. So yes, it could be possible that InGen could have made a second Jurassic World on the island.
4. Are pterodactyls actually strong enough to pick up full grown people?
No.
Pterosaurs (their proper name) have rather slender feet. The pterosaurs have only four flat forward-facing digits on their feet. An example of pterosaur feet can be seen below:

Check out these muscle diagrams after the jump:

Look at how thin the foot muscles and bones are! This means pterosaurs would be unable to grab prey the same way a bird of prey would grab prey, since birds of prey have highly developed bones for that exact purpose.
Another factor to consider is weight. Let’s use birds as a comparison example. Birds have a tendency to kill and fly off with prey that weigh smaller and have a smaller mass. It’s safe to assume that pterosaurs do the same thing based on fossil records and estimates—the average pterosaur weighs 35 kg (77lbs). Considering that in the scene the woman being lifted must weigh at least 60 kg (approximately 130 lbs), there is no possibility that pterosaur could have properly lifted that woman into the air and took flight.

Sources
http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/06/17/science-weighs-in-on-high-heels/
http://gimpasaura.blogspot.com/2015/02/people-snatching-pterosaurs.html

The Superpowers and Tools of the Avengers Can Be Explained by Science! (Well, Mostly)

To celebrate the release of the superhero movie Avengers: Age of Ultron this past weekend, the American Chemical Society just released a new YouTube video on their Reactions channel.  In the video, Dr. Raychelle Burks, a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Nebraska—Lincoln, gives easy-to-understand scientific explanations behind the Avengers’ superpowers and gadgets.

According to Burks, Iron Man’s suit would most likely be made of nitinol, a nickel-titanium alloy that is both light and durable. The reasoning behind this is because Iron Man’s original and gold-titanium alloy suits would weigh 150 lbs. and 350 lbs. respectively, which would impede Stark’s movements.  So much for Iron Man zipping around buildings.   In addition, the suit may also include graphite reinforced with carbon fiber in order to protect his feet from his rocket boots.  I don’t know about you, but burnt feet isn’t something that Tony Stark would have tolerated, given his flashy nature.

In addition, it is plausible that Iron Man would have created a new element to power his arc reactor.  Scientists have created 20 of the 118 elements of the periodic table, which are shown in pink and purple below:

1176px-Periodic_table,_good_SVG.svg

Burks also tackles Captain America’s and Black Widow’s healing factor abilities.  She deduced it all boils down to his white blood cells.  A special type of white blood cell, called a macrophage, release chemical messengers called growth factors to heal wounds.  In a normal human being, this repair process takes between 2 to 5 days to complete.  In the case of Captain America and Black Widow, their macrophages are super industrious due to their biotechnological enhancements.  These macrophages are working overtime in order to pump out more growth factors to heal bodily wounds quickly.

What about Captain America’s shield? It is made from vibranium, which is a durable ultra-tough metal frequently mentioned in the Marvel Universe.  It may be fictional, but it can conduct energy transfers seen in real-life science experiments.

cap shield

In a scene from the first Avengers movie, Thor strikes Captain America’s shield with his hammer.  Both Captain America and Thor are knocked backward but the shield emerged unscathed.  Burks explained that the vibranium in the shield absorbed the impact from Thor’s hammer, converting its vibrational energy to light energy.

thor striking captain shield

The vibrational energy of the hammer is kinetic energy—energy it has because it is moving—to the shield, a stationary object.  The hammer’s energy is then transferred to the shield and becomes potential energy—which is stored energy the object possesses because it is not moving. The product of this energy transaction is light energy.  If the shield was not made from vibranium, this energy transfer would be enough to break it.  But because of vibranium’s unique nature to absorb all kinetic energy directed at it, transfer it to potential energy, and store it in its molecules, the shield is virtually indestructible.

See? The Avengers may be created out of the comic writers’ and artists’ imaginations, but perhaps their abilities were more based in science than was previously thought.

After All These Years, Facebook is Still Being Used by Teens

Ah, teenagers.  They are the self-claimed connoisseurs of recent trends in whatever topic interests them, from music to fandoms to even methods of communication.  If you’ve been around them in some capacity, you might be hearing some of them state that Facebook isn’t in anymore and Snapchat is all the rage. Fear not – they’ve been exaggerating. According to a recent report from the Pew Research Center, Facebook is the most popular and frequently used social media platform among teens. (By the way, the same report states that Snapchat ranks third in popularity.) This can be attributed to the fact that most teens have access to a smartphone.  The majority of teenagers (77%) surveyed have a smartphone, and out of those with a smartphone, 94% of them go online from mobile devices daily or more often. Facebook Pew

These findings contrast with the results of a report conducted in 2014 by the investment bank Piper Jeffray, which stated that Instagram is the number one social networking website used by teens at 76%.  Facebook placed third in that particular survey with 45%. Why?  Two words: Sample size.  The Pew Research report only surveyed 1060 teens, while the Piper Jeffray report surveyed 7200 teens.  As you can see above, the Pew Report surveyed its subjects in two one-month increments.  The Piper Jeffray report surveyed teens at shorter junctures in two points of the year: spring and fall of 2014. The Pew Research report also revealed that teens from a higher-income stratum are somewhat more likely to use Snapchat.   In addition, boys are more likely to play video games than girls, with 91% of boys surveyed have or having access to a game console, compared with 70% of girls.  This last fact is startling, considering that more people game (including the columnists here at Geek Spectrum!), according to a 2014 ESA study on gaming in the United States. After viewing these statistics, one can only conclude that not only posting cat pictures and filtered selfies on your wall are still in vogue among teens, but also how smartphone technology has become a large factor in their (our!) day-to-day lives.  Besides, don’t adults also post cat pictures and fawn over them?